This is the first and fore most step in off page SEO. Creating a profile in social networking websites to become a favorite member with your friends circle and interact with your friends and sharing information with each other to promote your website to build online reputation.
Example of social networking sites are Facebook, Linked in, Twitter, Google+, Ecademy, etc.
Blogging is the important part in off page. Content should be very important in writing a blog because if your content is duplicate or copy paste content in different websites then your website will get low rank. Your content should be unique when your compare to other website You can also promote your blog in commanding section of other websites by writing some commands and linking your website. These are crawlable by search engine. This will pass link juice to your website and classified as do follow blogs.
Forum posting is one of the old technique of the off page to build back links and get more referral traffic. If you join in important forum posting sites and get interact with your friends politely and linking useful topic for the visitors so that you can get huge back links. You can post your related image of your website and creating alt text for the image from that you can create back links for your website.
Example of forum posting sites are Flickr, Sba, Forum.mysql, bbpress, addthis.
Submit your website to the top most search engine like google so that it can be easily crawl by google bots and indexing your website. Then your website can be able to high rank. You can submit your website in google search console for the google that like you want to submit for other search engine. Generally google is one of the top most search engine among the others.
Example of other search engines are Bing, Yahoo, Yandex, Baidu, MSN, Alexa, Ask.com, DuckDuckGo, etc.
Here Yandex is Russian based search engine and Baidu is china based search engine.
Many of them told that directory submission is an old technique and it is not good for ranking. But i will not approve this point.. I will tell that directory submission is little good in ranking. If you submitting your website in directory then then you should submit in a proper category. So that only the user can able to easily identify the location of your website. I will agree in this point that directory mission will take quite long time but it will be little worth for ranking. If your website want to get rank at the top of the SERP then you want to do every point of ranking.
Example for directory submission is Dmoz, Yahoo Directory, Botw, etc.
Social bookmarking is on of the best way to getting back links from others in off page SEO for spreading your website. Social bookmarking will be helpful for your website to get relevant traffic. Your website should be useful for the users when your website have valuable content so they will visit your site again and again. Update your content for at least weekly basis. If your social bookmarking of the directing website is rich in content then they will stay in your website for much time. This will improve your domain authority. Nowadays many of them spamming social bookmarking if you do they will block your login so be careful while linking your bookmarking. This is one of the important referral link in off page SEO.
Example of Social bookmarking sites are Facebook, Pinterest, Reddit, Tumblr, Stumpleupon, Delicious etc
Link baiting is the passion in your content writing that make other content writers want to link to your webpage. Link baiting make your website to get more inbound links or back links that will improve your page rank. If you are need of content from other website don't forget to paste their links as reference. If you don't do then google will consider as duplicate content. This will low rank your page.